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With the upcoming BS-VI emmission norms on April 1st, 2020, should you invest on a BS-VI compliant car? Or look at a BS-IV complaint car? Here is all the information.
Before we dig deep into the differences, let us first understand what BS-VI emission norms are - the question on every Indian motorist mind right now.
The Bharat Stage VI emission norms is the sixth iterations for vehicular emissions in India. The BS-VI emission norms is much needed for India to keep pollution in check. BS-VI norms are stricter and more restrictive than the BS-IV norms, allowing for cleaner air, and less pollution.
How Will India Become BS-VI Compliant? India will become compliant to new emission norms by starting with the use of BS-VI complaint fuel in their vehicles which reduce the emissions. The Indian government has given a deadline to all petroleum manufacturers to make all fuels BS-VI compliant by April 1st 2020.
With that, automobile manufacturers will have to make the engines BS-VI fuel compliant, a major reason for the current slowdown in the automotive sector.
BS6 vs BS4 Cars: Differences
The major difference in each mandate of Bharat Stage norms are towards controlling the emission from the vehicles. The BS-IV emission norms have been in place since April 2010 and it has been enforced for the entire country since April 2017.
Since then, all fuel used by your vehicles are BS-lV compliant. However, with the increase in pollution and to fight against rising levels of CO2 emissions, in 2016 government of India mandated to use BS-VI fuel from April 1st, 2020.
The sulphur content in the BS-lV fuel is reduced to 20% in the BS-VI fuel. The sulphur content in the fuel helps with the lubrication of injectors in diesel engines, however, it is also the main reason for more CO2 emissions from vehicles.
Reduction in sulphur content will help reduce the emission in vehicles but the challenge lies in compensating for lubrication to the injectors.
This is where the automotive manufacturers come into the picture. The carmakers will have to come up with a different technology make the engine perform the same with BS-VI fuel.
Let's dig deeper into the difference with petrol and diesel vehicles. The BS-Vl emission norms will not affect petrol vehicles much as they do not use injectors to help with the combustion. However, diesel fuel has more sulphur content which will contribute towards increased pollution.
Diesel engines rely on injectors to convert the fuel into a mist in order for them achieve combustion. To compensate for the reduction of sulphur content in the fuel, automotive manufacturers have to supply the engine with various components.
Further, diesel vehicles will also have to be fitted with DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction). These components help with treating exhaust gases by reducing the NOx emissions and help with a cleaner environment.
All the above changes made to the diesel engine will result in increased manufacturing costs, which ultimately results in more costs for customers. From a recent market analysis, the prices for cars will go up by 10 to 15 percent with the shift from BS-lV to BS-VI. However, it would be a small price to pay for a cleaner and greener environment.
Also, with the new emission norms the government has made it mandatory for all the vehicles to be fitted with (OBD) Onboard Diagnostics. The shift from BS-lV to BS-VI will also help with reduced NOx levels of up to 70% from diesel vehicles and 25% from petrol vehicles.
Another question which could arise is, can BS4 vehicle run on BS6 fuel? Again, for petrol it won't matter as the fuel composition has not changed much.
However, for diesel engine, since the BS-VI fuel contains less sulphur, the injectors in diesel engines cannot be lubricated properly and could lead to injectors getting damaged by using the BS-VI fuel on BS-IV cars.
If you flip the question can we use BS-IV fuel in BS-VI cars? Again petrol vehicles won't be affected by the mix. But, the diesel vehicles can suffer with (DPF) Diesel particulate Filter getting clogged up because of high sulphur content.
BS-VI Cars In India
While a lot of manufacturers are making their cars BS-VI complaint, some have already achieved this. Here are few cars which are BS-VI compliant in Indian market:
1. Mercedes-Benz E 200
2. Jeep Compass Trailhawk
3. Kia Seltos
4. Maruti Suzuki Ertiga
You can find the complete list of cars which are BS-VI compliant in Indian market —Here.
We expect automotive manufacturers to take some time to make diesel models BS-VI compliant. Also, a lot of manufactures will stop production of small diesel engines and move to electric or petrol-hybrid powertrains.
Maruti Suzuki and Tata were the first among many companies to confirm that they would stop producing smaller capacity diesel engines by April 2020.
History Of Emission Norms In India
A little history into how and when Bharat Stage come into effect in India. Back in 2000 the government of India introduced an emission regulation called the Bharat Stage. The emission standards were based on the European emission norms. Also, the Bharat Stage emission norms not only apply to vehicles, but for all the equipment which uses fuel to operate.
Fighting this long uphill battle, the government of India and the Central Pollution Control Board have revised the emission norms since. The Bharat Stage (BS-lll) norms came into effect from October 2010. Later, Bharat Stage (BS-lV) came into full effect across India from April 2017.
However, in 2016 Indian government announced that the country would skip the BS-V norms altogether and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020. At a later date, the deadline was given to petroleum manufacturers, automotive manufacturer and other equipment manufacturer to make all everything BS-VI compliant by April 1st, 2020.
Should You Wait For 2020 BS6 Cars?
In short, you should wait and purchase cars which are BS-VI compliant. Because, going forward the BS-IV will be history and all the mechanicals will be made BS-VI compliant in the engine. Also, BS-IV vehicles cannot be registered after April 1st, 2020, making the BS-IV vehicles depreciate in value.
Plus, the whole point of introducing BS-VI emission norms is to make the place we live in more cleaner, greener and pollutant free. It is wise to invest on a BS-VI compliant cars be taking a step toward the cause.