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Before we start, let us understand the intake system of an automobile. An Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) needs air and fuel for initiating combustion inside the cylinders. Fuel is supplied by injectors or a carburettor. Air is taken from outside. The amount of air and fuel mixture going inside the engine is controlled by a throttle valve or a butterfly valve.
The throttle valve is included in a carburettor. In an MPFI engine, the throttle valve or butterfly valve is a separate unit. The throttle valve which opens and closes to adjust the air-flow into the engine is controlled by a cable connecting the accelerator pedal. Nowadays, most cars do not have that cable. Instead, the throttle valve is electronically actuated by the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) using inputs from the accelerator pedal. This system is known as Drive-By-Wire. In motorcycles, it is called Ride-By-Wire.