A large yellow 'X' is painted on the end of a coach which is used as the last coach in a rake. Earlier series of concentric circles (yellow or white) were used.
It allows station crew or signalmen to visually check that the rake is intact by sighting this last vehicle indication. At night, a small red lamp is used at the end (this used to be an oil lamp in days past), and sometimes a board with the words 'Last Vehicle' can also be spotted.
EMU/DMU rakes have a smaller painted 'X' (red on white) at the rear, or sometimes a series of diagonal strokes painted on. (These painted symbols are all in addition to the lamp mentioned above.) In addition, a small board with 'LV' (black on yellow) is often attached to the rear of the vehicle (it stands for Last Vehicle).
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